Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic medical condition that affects the patient’s ability to use energy in food (sugar) There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, and Gestational diabetes, which is the only type of diabetes that can be cured. Diabetes is classified as a complex case requiring daily care, because neglect leads to serious complications that affect the quality of life of the patient, and can reduce life expectancy.
How diabetes affects the body
The body of the diabetic cannot maintain normal levels of glucose in the blood, which is a form of sugar that represents the main source of energy in the body. In a normal body, insulin is produced in the process of converting food to energy in the natural body, but is not produced in diabetic patients or produced at levels that do not meet the body needs.
In diabetes patients
Foods like bread and fruits are not converted into glucose, and insulin hormone that is made by the pancreas is not produced, so blood sugar levels rise. This leads to the need for insulin injections to control the energy metabolism in the body and convert it into glucose.
Types of diabetes
Type 1 DM
The immune system attacks the pancreas with antibodies, so the damaged pancreas cannot produce insulin, which is a genetic condition. However, it can be caused by a defect in the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. The treatment of this type involves the taking insulin injections.
Type 2 DM
This is the most common type, accounting for 95% of diabetes cases in adults. About twenty-six million American adults have been diagnosed with this type of diabetes, which also affects children and adolescents. This type is often more moderate than type I, despite its serious side effects that may affect small blood vessels feeding the kidneys, nerves, and eyes. The pancreas is producing very little insulin and does not meet the body needs. It is worth mentioning that the second type of diabetes is a acquired not genetic, especially in the obese people who have a 20% increase in the probability of developing the disease.
This type of diabetes occurs at the mid-point of pregnancy or at the end of it because of the high levels of sugar in the body of mother due to transport of excess sugar from the fetus to mother through the placenta. According to the U.S. National Health Institute, the prevalence of diabetes among pregnant women is up to 10%. This condition must be controlled and treated as it affects both the mother and the fetus. It can be converted to type 2 diabetes after birth.
Prescribed doses of insulin must be maintained at the appropriate time daily, because neglect leads to serious complications.
They are: Blindness, renal failure, heart attacks, and strokes up to four times more than healthy people. Effects on the patient’s mental and physical health, as well as depression, anxiety and psychiatric disorder increasing by 30%.