Diets & Weight Loss


Recent data indicate that 64% of adults in the U.S. are either overweight (BMI) from 25.0
29.9 kg / m2) or obesity (BMI> 30 kg / m2)  This number has increased sharply since 1994 when it was 55% off
American adults are overweight or obese. The obesity rate doubled from 15% in 1980 to 30% a year
1999 (1,2). The trend is similar in American children and teenagers. National study identified
For Health and Nutrition Examination 1999 to 2000 the prevalence of excess weight increased by 15.5% between
Between the ages of 12 and 19 years. 15.3% between 6 to 11 years; And 10.4% between 2 to 5 years.
These ratios are higher than the corresponding values ​​of 10.5%, 11.3% and 7.2% from 1988 to 1994
(NHANES III). The risk of being overweight increases in children who are overweight .
Obesity contributes to many negative health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease,
High blood pressure, stroke, osteoporosis, gallbladder disease, sleep apnea, respiratory problems, and cancer
Endometriosis, breast, prostate and colon . The total estimated cost of obesity in 1995 was 99.2
One billion dollars, which includes $ 51.6 billion spent on direct medical costs.
Obesity is a complex multi-factor disease that results from the positive energy balance that occurs when
Energy consumption exceeds energy spending. Lifestyle and environmental factors, including excessive energy
Eating, increasing fat intake, and physical inactivity are associated with the pathophysiology of obesity.
Growing evidence suggests a strong link between genetic factors and the causes of obesity. Genes may be involved in
Energy regulation like leptin, which is a signal protein for satiety produced in adipose tissue,
And other hormones or peptides, such as the nervous peptide Y, have important implications for understanding
Causes of obesity  Continuous research is required to determine the role of genetic factors in Obesity treatment.



Clinical guidelines for the identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults
Provide guidelines for categorizing overweight, obesity, and associated health risks, as well
Instructions for developing treatment strategies. The BMI is used to classify the degree of extra weight or
Obesity in adults because it is closely related to body fat. The BMI is calculated by dividing the weight
In kilograms along the square meters. Studies have identified the relationship between a high BMI
(> 25 kg / m 2) increased incidence of morbidity and mortality (1,4). BMI and waist circumference should be used
To categorize overweight and obesity, assessing disease risk, and selecting treatment options
(Second row) *  The BMI and waist circumference are closely related to obesity or fat
Mass and risk of other diseases. The waist circumference is also used as a evaluation parameter
Because excess belly fat is an independent indicator of increased risk and morbidity, even for
For individuals of normal weight, evidence from epidemiological studies shows that the waist circumference is
Better sign of belly fat than waist to hip ratio. The waist circumference is also more
Anthropometric scales are a process for assessing the abdominal fat content before and during
Weight loss treatment (4). High waist circumference is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia,
High blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in patients with a BMI between 25.0 and 34.9 kg / m 2. However,

For individuals with a body mass index greater than 35.0 kg / m2, a small waist circumference adds to predictive strength
To classify disease risk for body mass index III-23)
Children and teenagers
Children who are overweight have a greater risk of becoming overweight adults. Whether it is a child
He suffers from obesity or not, the obesity suffered by at least one parent more than doubles the risk of the child becoming obese when he reaches his age. Indicate
The latest statistics indicate that obesity is more prevalent among
Non-American black teens and Mexican American teenagers. Weight gain among children and adolescents is attributed to a group of
Bad dietary habits, family lifestyle, physical inactivity, race, marital and economic status, and genetics. Early
An intervention is recommended to prevent weight gain and obesity from continuing later in life
Recommendations were made to intervene and treat overweight and obesity
Children and teenagers. The panel of experts recommends possible evaluation and treatment
For children with a BMI greater than or equal to 85 percentile with complications of obesity and children who
They have a BMI greater than 95 percentile with or without obesity complications. A classification is specified
Excess weight for children by calculating the BMI and drawing it on
An age-appropriate BMI chart developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention recommends BMI-for-age charts for all children and adolescents between the ages of 2 and 20
General, instead of the residence weight plans previously developed by the National Center
For health statistics. Complications of obesity include high blood pressure
Lipidosis, bone disorders, sleep disorders, gallbladder disease and insulin resistance.
Achievement of weight goals depends on the patient’s age, percentage of body mass index, and presence

Medical complications.
The panel of experts recommends that it include the first step in evaluating an overweight child
An evaluation of underlying syndromes, including hereditary causes (for example, Prader-Willi syndrome)
And causes of endocrine (such as hypothyroidism and Cushing’s syndrome). in addition to ,
A full medical and psychosocial history must be collected, and a physical examination must be performed to determine complications.
These complications include sleep apnea, a false brain, bone complications, and spines
Black (coarse areas, hyperpigmentation in the folds of the neck or armpits attached
With insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Children with eating disorders or symptoms of depression require
Psychotherapy and not participating in a weight control program without approval

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