Upcoming epidemiological studies of the diet and chronic diseases have facilitated significant progress in our understanding of the contribution of diet to the pathogen. These studies are supplemented by randomized trials and studies on nutrients in animal models that prepare to change guidelines around the world. Although the principles differ from one country to another, they are from different parts of the world that share similarities in terms of pressure on certain types of foods. And nutrients
Maintain caloric balance
Over time it is very important to maintain a healthy weight. Excessive nutrition that leads to overweight and obesity is a very important nutritional problem, as it poses premature deaths to increase the incidence of disorder, diabetes, blood pressure, cancer and other important conditions. For patients of normal weight, caloric intake must bear energy expenditures. Balancing calorie intake requires that many individuals limit their typical calorie consumption while also participating in physical activity. Calculating total energy expenditure depends on their daily calories based on their age, gender, weight and activity level. Actual daily calorie intake can be calculated using a 24-hour diet recall, food diary, or other assessment tool to see how many calories are eaten from different foods and drinks
Macronutrients are chemical compounds that are consumed in the largest quantities and provide significant energy. The three main nutrients are followed by carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Fibers can be considered as macronutrients Total calories should be reduced in percentage of macronutrients, as done by the United States (US) dietary guidelines
45 to 65 percent of carbohydrates
10 to 35 percent protein
20 to 35 percent of fatty carbohydrates for both the number and type of carbohydrates (for example, simple versus complex, whole grains versus refined grains) have different effects on post-eating glucose levels and the glycemic index. Several future studies were associated with high diets in the glycemic index with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and a few cancers. The glycemic index of common foods is available in an excessive schedule. An important way to achieve a healthy diet is to switch carbohydrates that are high in blood sugar (for example, pizza, rice, pies) with a glycemic index in coffee (for example, fruits and vegetables). Available sugars should be used on more than 25 percent of total calories consumed.
• Protein subjects should be advised to eat a range of protein-rich foods, including lean fish and meat such as poultry, eggs, beans, peas, soy products, nuts and unsalted seeds. Patients should be advised to avoid protein sources with saturated and trans fats, including red and processed meats. Common sources of dietary protein include whole protein foods (such as meat, fish, eggs, vegetables, and milk) and protein powders (such as casein, whey, and soybeans). The protein source has a differential effect on health (for example, the number of red meat with an increased mortality, compared to white meat).
The type of fats consumed in an excessive diet appears to be more important than the total saturated and trans fats that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), while monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated protective fats
• individuals should consume 10% of calories from Saturated fatty acids. Saturated fats (such as meats, cheeses, and ice cream) can be replaced by monounsaturated fatty acids of various types (for example, in fish, olive oil, and nuts). Patients should be advised to exchange whole milk products (such as whole milk and ice cream) with skim or dairy products (such as skim milk, milk and fortified soy drinks).
Transit carboxylic acid consumption should be kept as low as possible. The main sources of trans fats include vegetable ghee and partially hydrogenated vegetable fats. These fats are found in many processed and fast foods. The effect of saturated fatty acids and trans fats on health outcomes is discussed separately with strategies to reduce their consumption separately.
There is some evidence that long-term consumption of animal oil and omega-3 fatty acids weighed a chance of discomfort. It is usually recommended to eat one to two servings of oily fish in the weekly diet of many adult patients. Often this is very well discussed separately, food cholesterol consumption should be only 300 mg per day, as it was done in the American nutritional guidelines. The consumption of trans fats, saturated fats and dietary cholesterol are all at plasma cholesterol levels. High plasma cholesterol concentrations, in particular harmful cholesterol, show a strong and consistent association with CHD occurrence [12,13]. However, there is limited data that shows that dietary interventions to lower cholesterol intake improve patient outcomes. The amount of fiber in the dietary fiber is 14 g per 1000 calories. Or 25 grams daily for girls and 38 grams daily for men. Fibers are part of the plants that cannot be digested by the enzymes inside the canal. Fiber can be obtained in a very large variety of foods and natural supplements. Patients should judge the exchange of refined grains (such as white rice and white bread) with whole grains (such as brown rice and whole wheat bread) that have a high fiber content. Cases of increased fiber intake have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and deaths For all reasons:
• Cardiovascular disease – eating a high amount of fiber with a 40 to 50 percent reduction in the risk of heart disease and stroke compared to a reduced fiber intake [The joint analysis of cohort studies found that every 10 g increased in mineral fiber intake per day was Linked to a relative decrease of 14 percent in the risk of all coronary events and a 27 percent reduction in coronary heart disease deaths, diets may partially protect against coronary artery disease by controlling cardiovascular risk factors, including lowering insulin levels, improving Features of fat, lowering the level of pressure
• Diabetes – Fiber consumption of cereals includes a protective effect against diabetes. Increased fiber intake may also be useful in controlling glucose In diabetics.
• Cancer – a variety of laboratories and nutrition. Epidemiological studies have identified low levels of dietary fiber to cause colorectal cancer. However, the degree of protection of dietary fibers from the occurrence of adenomas or colorectal cancer is not certain, because you are the results of many epidemiological studies and trials. The randomness is unequal. Dietary fiber and colon and rectal cancer risk and other cancers are discussed separately
• Mortality – Monitoring studies indicate that increased dietary fiber intake decreases with all causes of death and coronary artery disease.
• In the NIH-AARP group, with 20,000 male deaths and 10,000 female deaths during nine years of follow-up, higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a 22 percent lower risk of all-cause mortality for both men and women (compared to higher slides) Five-Year Fibers)
• In a large prospective European cohort study of 452,717 healthy individuals (mean follow-up 12.7 years), there was an inverse association between fiber intake and total deaths (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.88-0.92) fiber intake was inversely related Also deaths from circulatory and respiratory diseases, the gastrointestinal tract, and non-cardiovascular and non-cancerous inflammatory diseases [associations were stronger in smokers and drinkers of alcoholic beverages (> 18 grams of alcohol per day). The fiber from vegetables and grains has a higher effect than the fiber from the fruit.
Micronutrients Nutrients needed in very small quantities are called micronutrients in which many minerals (such as sodium and calcium) and vitamins … are selected (sodium is the amount of nutritional sodium that the finalists have). Allows high amounts of sodium to be caused by high blood pressure and disorder. Sodium intake will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, including death, . Some individuals are particularly sensitive to sodium in the diet (for example, older adults, African Americans and patients with chronic kidney disease) are referred to as sodium. Sodium restriction is closely discussed separately calcium and festerol – the calcium intake in postmenopausal women is ≥1200 mg per day, while the intake of viosterol which is ≥400 IU per day is I am younger and a minimum of 800 IU per day for older adults Age. Calcium and phytoestrol are essential for normal skeletal stabilization. Provides the benefits of Calcium and Vesterol in preventing osteoporosis, patients should be encouraged to eat foods that contain Calcium and / or Vesterol, such as fortified milk products. Dietary supplements should be provided to patients with insufficient calcium or fosterol recommendations to supplement calcium and fosterol in treating osteoporosis elsewhere. The effect of calcium and vesterol intake on most of the extracurricular health outcomes is still unclear. This is often discussed separately. Folic acid is also due to its importance for erythrocytes, folic acid has a crucial role in preventing external defects. It is not clear whether folic acid prevents other diseases
• Low intake of folic acid is associated with an increased risk of skin defects. Supplementing with vitamin B complex. A weight of this risk in women. Women should have daily reproductive vitamins containing at least 0.4 mg of vitamin B complex.
• In studies on the list, it was observed that eating higher folate had a lower risk of developing cancer. However, in randomized trials, complex vitamin B supplements do not appear to protect against cancer that increases the risk of colon and rectal cancer and other vitamins
– the nutritional vitamins that are shown are key vitamin allowances. Vitamin supplements are discussed separately appropriately food types – in addition to For example, in prospective cohort studies on healthy men and women, fruits, vegetables, and nuts were produced by weight loss while processed meats, unprocessed red meat, potato chips, and fried foods Sweets were linked to weight gain . Despite the variation in how food classes are classified, many countries categorize food into subsequent groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy products, and foods rich in meat / protein]. American Nutritional Guidelines provide a guide to their average daily intake (no calorie-backed food groups). Fruits and Vegetables – Patients should be advised to eat five or more servings of fruits and / or vegetables daily]. Fruits and vegetables are an upscale source of fiber, vitamins, and essential minerals, such as carbohydrates with a glycemic index. Sometimes increased eating of fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of discomfort, cancer, and death. Cardiovascular disease Several studies indicate that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. A meta-analysis of cohort studies also found that eating more fruits and vegetables that risk stroke. Compared to eating less than three servings a day, the risks were reduced with three to 5 servings and five servings daily (RR 0.89 and 0.74, respectively) [One study found that the ever-lower risks were associated with higher consumption of cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower) Brussels sprouts), green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, and fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C after eating. Six servings a day provided an additional slight decrease in the risk of deficiencyPerfusion compared to eating 5 to 6 servings per day. A possible explanation for this relationship is that the high fiber content in these foods, which can provide great protection against cardiovascular disease and stroke. Cancer Numerous laboratory studies and few observational studies have found some anti-cancer properties of fruits and vegetables, but large potential cohort studies have not found a significant effect on the occurrence of cancer among the general population. Some observational studies provide a link between increased consumption of tomatoes and a lower risk of gland cancer Mortality Large potential cohort studies have been found to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables linked to a decrease in all causes and deaths of coronary heart disease]. Within the prospective European Survey on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), participants consuming eight or more portions of fruits and vegetables per day had a lower risk of coronary heart disease deaths, compared to those who consumed but three portions per day (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65 – 0.95). Each increased portion (80 g) was associated with a 4 percent lower risk of coronary heart disease. Grains Individuals are advised to consume at least half of all grains such as whole grains (i.e., three ounces or more whole grains) for a diet containing 2000 calories, as used in American nutritional guidelines. Foods made from wheat, oats, or Rice, corn flour or barley cereal products.
Common types of cereal include bread, breakfast cereals, oatmeal, tortilla and pasta.
Refined grains (such as white rice, life employees, refined and sweetened grains), which remove fibers, iron, and B vitamins, are ground to give a thinner texture and improve the period.
Fertilized grains are refined grains that contain iron and vitamin B additives, but not fibers in most cases.
Foods made with whole grains include rice, whole wheat bread, whole grains, and oatmeal. This is a decent source of fiber and carbohydrates with low blood sugar or barley considered cereal products. Common types of cereal include bread, breakfast cereals, oatmeal, tortilla and pasta.
Refined grains (such as white rice, life employees, refined and sweetened grains), which remove fibers, iron, and B vitamins, are ground to give a thinner texture and improve the period.
• It includes whole grain foods, whole wheat bread, whole grains, and oatmeal. These are a decent source of fiber and carbohydrates with low first blood sugar and B vitamins, for a smoother feel and an improved cycle. Fertilizers are refined grains that contain added iron and vitamin B, but not fibers in most cases.
• It includes whole grain foods, whole wheat bread, whole grains, and oatmeal. These are a decent source of fiber and carbohydrates with low first blood sugar and B vitamins, for a smoother feel and an improved cycle. Enriched grains are refined grains that contain added iron and vitamin B, but not fiber in most cases
• Includes foods made from whole grains, whole wheat bread, whole grains, and oatmeal. This is a decent source of fiber and carbohydrates with low blood sugar first
03) and / or stroke (relative risk 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.90) Individuals should be advised to change whole milk products (such as whole milk and ice cream) with fat-free or dairy products (such as skim milk and yogurt). Meat and other protein-rich foods should advise individuals to order 5.5 ounces of meat and beans free Of fats per day (approximately two to a few servings) for a diet that contains 2000 calories, as in American Nutritional Guidelines Foods with protein, meat, seafood, eggs, beans, nuts, seeds, and protein sources High in trans fat and saturated fat, including That red and processed meats (such as cold cuts and hot dogs) have a negative health effect compared to lean protein . Within the NIH-AARP group, consumption of red meat and processed meats was associated with increased all causes, cardiovascular, and cancer deaths, while consumption of red meat was associated with a lower risk of death from all causes and cancer represented, in an analysis that combined results from women in the nurses’ health study ( N = 83,644) and men among the health professionals additional study (N = 37,698), higher intake of chicken was associated with a high risk of total mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, while replacing other foods (such as poultry, fish, and legumes) Nuts, low-fat dairy products and whole grains) was associated with lower risk; The risks were higher for processed chicken than for untreated chicken It was advised to eat one or two portions of oily fish in the family diet of adult patients, as there is some evidence that long-term consumption of animal oil, omega-3 fatty acids and weight from the chance of a disorder. Fully discussed elsewhere Alcoholic beverages should be consumed in small quantities only with no one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. The exact risks and benefits of consuming alcohol vary depending on the age, gender, and disease conditions supported. For the general population, moderate alcohol consumption usually weighs the chance of a disorder, while also increasing the chance of developing cancer, and in women, cancer. People who drink moderately probably do not need advice for prevention. At the same time, people who do not drink alcohol do not have to start. Alcohol is discussed separately separately. Sweetened Drinks Emotional and other sweetened drinks (such as fruit drinks) should not be encouraged. These drinks are an important source of added sugar in the diet. Sugar-sweetened drinks and fruit juices grow to increase the risk of weight in healthy men and women]. Its consumption is also provided to reduce the intake of key nutrients because they are consumed instead of nutrient-dense foods. One of the cohort studies found an association between naturally or artificially sweetened drinks and an increased risk of developing high blood pressure. People should be encouraged to drink regular water.
Sweetened drinks. Types of diet There are many types of diets, one of which has been studied to reduce weight loss, rather than maintain normal weight. These include low calories, low fats, low carbohydrates (for example, the Atkins diet), high proteins, and a portion-controlled diet. These diets are carefully discussed separately. Outside the overweight and obese population, there are a few well-designed prospective cohort studies or randomized trials that compare different diets. This can be in part thanks to the wide variation in cultural influences on dietary patterns. It happens, it is not known what kind of diet is ideal for the general population. Low-fat diet, vegan diet, high blood pressure prevention approach (DASH), as well as the Mediterranean diet are among the most frequently used diets to care for the physiological condition, where weight loss is not necessarily the first goal. All of these diets have health benefits. Choosing to decide on one of all these diets mostly supports patient preference as well as the ability to stick to a specific diet. Low-fat diet Low-fat diets are a regular strategy to help patients lose or maintain weight, and most dietary guidelines recommend a discount From daily intake of fats to 30 percent of energy consumption or less despite concern that low-fat diets may promote an unhealthy increase in carbohydrate consumption and the resulting weight gain, this does not seem to be the case. This was illustrated by a diet modification trial in which 48,835 postmenopausal women over 50 years of age were randomly assigned to a dietary intervention for group and individual sessions to market a reduction in fat intake and an increase in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grains versus the effect group received Only food educational materials . There were no weight loss or caloric restriction goals. After an average of seven years of follow-up, subsequent results were seen:
• Women in the intervention group lost weight and maintained lower weight than young women in one year (a difference of 1.9 kg) and 7.5 years ( A difference of 0.4 kg).
• No trend towards weight gain was observed within the intervention group, while some weight gain was observed within the control group.
• Weight loss was associated with more fat intake and was greater in women
Plant diet Diet varies greatly depending on the degree of dietary restrictions. In line with the most explicit definition
The vegetarian diet consists primarily of grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes and nuts; Animal foods, including milk, dairy products, and eggs are generally excluded . Several less restrictive vegan diets may include eggs and dairy products. Some diets may also be grouped as follows:
• Vegetarian plants – vegetables, fruits, legumes and seaweed are included in the diet, while whole grains, especially rice, are emphasized. Locally grown fruits are recommended. Animal foods that are limited to red meat or white meat fish may also be included in the diet once or twice per week.
• Semi-vegan – meat is sometimes included in the diet. Some people who follow such a diet may not eat meat but may eat fish, possibly chicken.
• Lacto-ovovegetarian – eggs, milk, and dairy products (lacto = dairy; egg = eggs) are included, but meat is not consumed.
• Lactovegetarian – milk and dairy products are included in the diet, but eggs or meat are not consumed.
• Vegetarian – All animal products, including eggs, milk and dairy products, are excluded from the diet. Some vegetarians do not use honey. Honey extends beyond the use of animal products such as skin or wool. They may also avoid foods that are processed or that are not organically grown. The long-term effects of a vegetarian diet on health outcomes are difficult to disconnect from the effects of a vegetarian lifestyle (such as regular exercise and avoiding tobacco and alcohol products). However, observational studies indicate that eating a vegetarian diet with a lower incidence of obesity, coronary heart disease producing blood pressure and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, the observational list indicates that being a lean person has greater health benefits and reduces One of the health risks of being a vegetarian. The nutritional suitability of a vegetarian diet should be judged individually, not on the basis of what it is called but on the type, amount, and style of nutrients consumed by vegetarians, who exclude dairy products in their diet, may have low mineral density and a better risk of fractures due to insufficient intake of vitamin Fat soluble patients in a vegetarian diet completely exclude animal products taking cyanocobalamin agreements to take cyanocobalamin supplement. The Dash diet consists of 4 to 5 servings of fruits, 4 to 5 servings of vegetables, 2 to 3 servings of low-fat dairy products per day, and 25% of the dietary intake of fats. DASH diet has been studied in both populations with high blood pressure and high blood pressure and reduces pressure on systolic and blood pressure on a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and making a low-sodium and DASH diet to an additional decrease in pressure, compared to those observed with high Agents blood pressure. Mediterranean diet There is no single definition of a Mediterranean diet, but these diets are usually high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, and dry oil seeds as a vital source of fat. Usually there are low to moderate amounts of fish, poultry, and dairy products, with little meat. The Mediterranean diet provides many health benefits:
• A meta-analysis of 12 studies with 8 groups of the Mediterranean diet was associated with improving health status and overall mortality , Cardiovascular deaths, cancer deaths, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease].
• The largest studies conducted evaluated the compatibility with the Mediterranean diet within the NIH-AARP group in men, and there was a nearly 20 percent decrease in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer, while in women, an identical decrease was found in All causes, cardiovascular deaths, but less benefit for cancer death. Patient information UpToDate provides two types of patient education materials, “The Basics” and “Beyond the Basics.” The Basics of Patient Education Basics are written in clear language, at the fifth to sixth grade reading level, and they answer the four or five major questions that a patient may need In a particular case. These articles are best for patients who need an overview and prefer short, easy-to-read materials. Beyond the basics, patient education portions are longer, more complex, and more detailed. These articles are written at the reading level from tenth to twelfth grade and are best for patients Those who wish to obtain in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical terminology Here are patient education articles presented with the current topic. We encourage you to print these topics or by email to your patients
Summary and suggestions
Maintaining calorie balance over time is vital to maintaining a healthy weight. Calorie intake balancing requires that many individuals lose their typical calorie intake while also engaging in physical activity. Calculating total energy expenditures depends on the daily calories they have on their age, gender, weight and activity level
Calorie intake should be proportional to the three major nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Macronutrients are chemical compounds that are consumed in the largest quantities and provide significant energy.
Micronutrients are nutrients that are required in small quantities and also on many minerals and vitamins
The recommended amount of sodium for the total population is less than 100 mcg / day (2.3 g of sodium or 6 g of sodium chloride). Low sodium intake is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, including death.
• Most individuals consuming a diet do not need to take vitamin supplements.
• Main food groups generally include fruits / vegetables, grains, dairy products, and foods rich in meat / protein)
• Individuals should be advised to eat five or more servings of fruit and / or vegetables daily. Fruits and vegetables are an expensive source of fiber, and the consumption of fruits / vegetables is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and death.
Individuals should be advised to exchange refined grains (such as bread, white rice and refined and sweetened grains) with whole grains (such as whole wheat bread, brown rice, whole grain cereal or oatmeal), which contain a high content of fiber. Refined grains are associated with long-term weight gain
Individuals should be advised to exchange whole milk products (for example, whole milk and ice cream) for fat-free or dairy products (such as skim milk and milk). Consumption of saturated and metabolized carboxylic acids should be kept as low as possible by limiting foods such as partially hydrogenated oils (for example, margarine)
• Individuals should be advised to avoid and process red meat and consult them for a range of protein-rich foods, including seafood and lean meats such as poultry, eggs, beans, peas, soy products, nuts and unsalted seeds. Consuming red meat and processed meats to increase mortality, while consuming red meat. Consuming emotional drinks and other sweetened drinks (for example, fruit drinks) may be a major source of sweetener added to the diet and will be installed. Low-fat diet, vegetarian meals, and dietary approaches to prevent high blood pressure (DASH), this Mediterranean diet is among the most frequently used diets to care for the physiological condition, where weight loss is not necessarily the primary goal. These meals have health benefits . However, it is not known what kind of diet is ideal for the general population. The choice to settle in one of all these diets is usually supported by the individual preference for an ability to stick to a specific diet. This is why the Mediterranean diet is among the most used diets to care for the physiological condition, where weight loss is not necessarily the primary goal. Those meals have health benefits. However, it is not known what kind of diet is ideal for the general population. The choice to settle in one of all these diets is usually supported by the individual preference for an agreement to be able to stick to a specific diet. That is why the Mediterranean diet is among the most frequently used diets to care for the physiological condition, where weight loss is not necessarily the primary goal. Those meals have health benefits. However, it is not known what kind of diet is ideal for the general population. Choosing to settle in one of all these diets is usually supported by the individual preference for an ability to stick to a specific diet.